Tendonitis


 

Introduction

While tendinitis can occur in any of your tendons, it’s most common around your shoulders, elbows, wrists, knees and heels.

Some common names for various tendinitis problems are:

  • Tennis elbow
  • Golfer’s elbow
  • Pitcher’s shoulder
  • Swimmer’s shoulder
  • Jumper’s knee

Most cases of tendinitis can be successfully treated with rest, physical therapy and medications to reduce pain. If tendinitis is severe and leads to the rupture of a tendon, you may need surgery.

Anatomy

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease and doesn’t just affect your joints. RA symptoms develop over just a few weeks or months and often begin with cold and flu-like symptoms such as fever, weakness and fatigue.

RA most often affects the following joints:

  • spine
  • knees
  • hips
  • shoulders
  • wrists
  • ankles
  • elbows

Causes

Although tendinitis can be caused by a sudden injury, the condition is much more likely to stem from the repetition of a particular movement over time. Most people develop tendinitis because their jobs or hobbies involve repetitive motions, which put stress on the tendons.

Using proper technique is especially important when performing repetitive sports movements or job-related activities. Improper technique can overload the tendon — which can occur, for instance, with tennis elbow — and lead to tendinitis.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of tendinitis tend to occur at the point where a tendon attaches to a bone and typically include:

  • Pain often described as a dull ache, especially when moving the affected limb or joint
  • Tenderness
  • Mild swelling

Diagnosis

Usually, your doctor can diagnose tendinitis during the physical exam alone. Your doctor may order X-rays or other imaging tests if it’s necessary to rule out other conditions that may be causing your signs and symptoms.

Treatment

The goals of tendinitis treatment are to relieve your pain and reduce inflammation. Often, taking care of tendinitis on your own — including rest, ice and over-the-counter pain relievers — may be all the treatment that you need.

Surgery

Depending on the severity of your tendon injury, surgical repair may be needed, especially if the tendon has torn away from the bone.

Recovery

Healing can take up to 12 weeks. The injured tendon may need to be supported with a splint or cast to take tension off of the repaired tendon. Physical therapy or occupational therapy is usually necessary to return movement in a safe manner.

Prevention

To reduce your chance of developing tendinitis, follow these suggestions:

  • Ease up. Avoid activities that place excessive stress on your tendons, especially for prolonged periods. If you notice pain during a particular exercise, stop and rest.
  • Mix it up. If one exercise or activity causes you a particular, persistent pain, try something else. Cross-training can help you mix up an impact-loading exercise, such as running, with lower impact exercise, such as biking or swimming.
  • Improve your technique. If your technique in an activity or exercise is flawed, you could be setting yourself up for problems with your tendons. Consider taking lessons or getting professional instructions when starting a new sport or using exercise equipment.
  • Stretch. Take time after exercise to stretch in order to maximize the range of motion of your joints. This can help to minimize repetitive trauma on tight tissues. The best time to stretch is after exercise, when your muscles are warmed up.
  • Use proper workplace ergonomics. If possible, get an ergonomic assessment of your workspace and adjust your chair, keyboard and desktop as recommended for your height, arm length and usual tasks. This will help protect all your joints and tendons from excessive stress.
  • Prepare your muscles to play. Strengthening muscles used in your activity or sport can help them better withstand stress and load.

Complications

Without proper treatment, tendinitis can increase your risk of experiencing tendon rupture — a much more serious condition that may require surgery.

If tendon irritation persists for several weeks or months, a condition known as tendinosis may develop. This condition involves degenerative changes in the tendon, along with abnormal new blood vessel growth.

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